MJKC Email Form

Please enter your e-mail in the From field to receive a copy of your e-mail. This will be an indication that the message was sent successfully. Your e-mail address will not be stored or retained for any other purpose.

MJKC
Menu

Japanese Terms

We use Japanese terms in our training for two main reasons. The first is that our art comes from Japan, so it is natural to use the terms that describe it in that language. The second is that as a universal martial art, using the same terms as everyone else makes it very easy to go to a dojo in a foreign country, and still understand the instruction.

You can follow this (somewhat longish) guide to pronunciation. When an 'i' or an 'u' sound is either dropped or "darkened", it is denoted in parentheses in the list below.

  • General Terms
    Dojo (道場)

    The place where martial arts are being taught and studied. Literally, "Place of The Way."

    Shomen (正面)

    Front, literally "true face"

    Seirets(u) (正列)

    Line up

    Seiza (正座)

    Sit (formal)

    Rei (礼)

    Bow

    Hajime! (始め)

    Start!

    Yame! (止め)

    Stop!

    Yas(u)me (休め)

    Stand at ease

    Mok(u)so (黙想)

    Meditate

    Mok(u)so yame (黙想止め)

    Stop meditating

    Sensei (先生)

    Teacher, literally "person born before another"

    Sempai (先輩)

    Senior student

    Otagai (御互い)

    Each other

    Shomen-ni rei (正面に礼)

    Bow to the front

    Sensei-ni rei (先生に礼)

    Bow to sensei

    Otagai-ni rei (御互いに礼)

    Bow to each other

    Kirits(u) (起立)

    Stand up

    Yoi (用意)

    Ready

    Os(u) (押忍)

    An enthusiastic yes; I will try my best; I will do my best to follow

    Ki (気)

    Spirit, life energy, intention

    Kiai (気合)

    A loud shout eminating from deep within the body (not just from one's throat), expressing Ki

    Hidari (左)

    Left side

    Migi (右)

    Right side

    Jodan (上段)

    Upper level

    Chudan (中段)

    Middle level

    Gedan (下段)

    Lower level

  • Numbers
    1. Ich(i) (一)
    2. Ni (二)
    3. San (三)
    4. Shi (or Yon) (四)
    5. Go (五)
    6. Rok(u) (六)
    1. Shich(i) (or Nana) (七)
    2. Hach(i) (八)
    3. Kyu (九)
    4. Jyu (十)
    1. Hyaku (百)
    1. Sen (千)

    Further numbers are logically formed as follows: Jyu-Ichi (11), Jyu-Ni (12), ..., Jyu-Yon (14), ..., Jyu-Nana (17), ..., Jyu-Kyu (19), Ni-Jyu (20), Ni-Jyu-Ichi (21), Ni-Jyu-Ni (22), ..., Yon-Jyu (40), ..., Nana-Jyu (70), ..., Kyu-Jyu (90), ..., Ni-Hyaku (200), ..., Ni-Sen (2000), etc.

    You can practice counting with this YouTube video.

  • Stances
    Tachi (立ち)

    Stance

    Shomen (正面)

    When used with stances, in particular with zenkutsu dachi, means that the hips must face forward, i.e. the hips are closed.

    Hanmi (半身)

    Half-way open - when used with stances, in particular with zenkutsu dachi, means that the hips must face forwardat 45 degrees to the side, i.e. the hips are open.

    Musubi Dachi (結び立)

    Attention stance. Heels together, toes open at about 45 degrees. This stance is used to perform the formal respectful bow, rei.

    Shizen Tai (自然体)

    Natural position, feet are at shoulder width, toes pointing outwards

    Hachiji Dachi (八字立)

    Natural stance, same as Shizen Tai

    Kiba Dachi (騎馬立)

    Straddle stance, sometimes referred to as "horse riding stance." The feet are about two shoulder widths apart, and their outer edges are parallel.

    Zenkutsu Dachi (前屈立)

    Front stance

    Kokutsu Dachi (後屈立)

    Back stance

    Kosa Dachi (交差立)

    Cross-legged stance

    Heisoku Dachi (閉足立)

    Feet together stance, toes are together as well.

    Sochin Dachi (壯鎭立)

    Immovable stance

    Fudo Dachi (不動立)

    In most cases identical to Sochin Dachi, but according to Sensei Nishiyama, a more inline version of Sochin Dachi

    Hangetsu Dachi (半月立)

    Large "hourglass" stance, literally "halfmoon stance"

    Sanchin Dachi (三戦立)

    Small "hourglass" stance, literally "three battle stance"

    Neko-ashi Dachi (猫足立)

    Cat Stance

    Heiko Dachi (平行立)

    Parallel stance, feet are at sholder width, and their outer edges are parallel.

    Shiko Dachi (四股立)

    Similar to Kiba Dachi, with the feet pointing outward at 45 degrees, which allows for a lower hip position.

  • Techniques

    Punching Techniques

    Ts(u)ki (突き)

    Punch

    Choku Ts(u)ki (直突き)

    Straight punch

    Tate Ts(u)ki (立て突き)

    Vertical punch

    Ura Ts(u)ki (裏突き)

    Inverted (palm up) punch

    Oi Ts(u)ki (追い突き)

    Step punch (aka lunge punch)

    Gyaku Ts(u)ki (逆突き)

    Reverse punch

    Kizami Ts(u)ki (刻み突き)

    Jab (leading arm punch)

    Kagi Ts(u)ki (鉤突き)

    Hook punch

    San-bon Ts(u)ki (三本突き)

    Tripple punch

    Kicking Techniques

    Keri (蹴り)

    Kick

    Mae Geri (Keage) (前蹴り(蹴上げ))

    Front snap kick

    Mae Geri Kekomi (前蹴り蹴込め)

    Front thrust kick

    Yoko Geri Keage (横蹴り蹴上げ)

    Side snap kick

    Yoko Geri Kekomi (横蹴り蹴込め)

    Side thrust kick

    Mawashi Geri (廻し蹴り)

    Roundhouse (snap) kick

    Ushiro Geri (後蹴り)

    Back (thrust) kick

    Mikazuki geri (三日月蹴り)

    Crescent Kick

    Ren Geri (連蹴り)

    Two consecutive kicks

    Blocking Techniques

    Harai (払い)

    Sweep, sweeping block

    Gedan Barai (下段払い)

    Downward block

    Uke (受け)

    Block, defense, literally "to receive"

    Age Uke (上げ受け)

    Rising block

    Soto (Ude) Uke (外(腕)受け)

    Outside/inward (forearm) block

    Uchi (Ude) Uke (内(腕)受け)

    Inside/outward (forearm) block

    Shuto Uke (手刀受け)

    Knife hand block

    Morote (Uchi) Uke (諸手(内)受け)

    Two handed (inside) block (aka augmented block)

    Nagashi Uke (流し受け)

    Sweeping block

    Juji Uke (十字受け)

    Two handed crossing block

    Kakiwake Uke (掻き分け受け)

    Two handed "wedge" block

    Gedan Kakiwake Uke (下段掻き分け受け)

    Downward two handed "wedge" block

    Striking Techniques

    Uchi (打ち)

    Strike

    Nukite (貫手)

    Finger tip strike

    Tettsui Uchi (鉄槌打ち)

    Hammerfist strike

    Uraken Uchi (裏拳打ち)

    Back fist strike

    Shuto Uchi (手刀打ち)

    Knife hand strike

    Haito Uchi (背刀打ち)

    Rigde hand strike

    Teisho Uchi (掌底打ち)

    Palm heel strike

    Empi Uchi (猿臂打ち)

    Elbow strike

Exam Requirements

Belt icons made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com, licensed by CC 3.0 BY
  • Yellow belt For Eighth Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration and basic external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 6 oi tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 gedan barai (stepping backward)
    4. 3 soto ude uke (stepping forward)
    5. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    6. 3 shuto uke (stepping forward)
    7. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan kakiwake uke
    8. 6 mae geri (stepping forward)
    9. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    10. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    11. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)

    Kata (形)

    Heian Shodan (平安初段)

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki
    2. chudan oi tsuki
  • Blue belt For Seventh Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 6 oi tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    4. 3 soto ude uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping forward)
    5. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    6. 3 shuto uke (stepping forward)
    7. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    8. 3 mae geri
    9. 3 mawashi-geri
    10. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    11. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    12. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)

    Kata (形)

    Heian Nidan (平安二段)

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki (right side)
    2. chudan oi tsuki (right side)
    3. jodan oi tsuki (left side)
    4. chudan oi tsuki (left side)
  • Green belt For Sixth Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 6 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    4. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    5. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    6. 3 shuto uke / gyaku nukite (stepping forward / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    7. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    8. 3 mae ren geri
    9. 3 mawashi ren geri
    10. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    11. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    12. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)

    Kata (形)

    Heian Sandan (平安三段)

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki
    2. chudan oi tsuki
    3. chudan mae geri
  • Purple belt For Fifth Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 6 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    4. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    5. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    6. 3 shuto uke / kizami mae geri / gyaku nukite (stepping forward / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    7. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    8. 3 mae ren geri
    9. 3 mawashi ren geri
    10. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    11. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    12. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)

    Kata (形)

    Heian Yondan (平安四段)

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki (right side)
    2. chudan oi tsuki (right side)
    3. chudan mae geri (right side)
    4. jodan oi tsuki (left side)
    5. chudan oi tsuki (left side)
    6. chudan mae geri (left side)
  • Purple belt For Fourth Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai, speed, breathing and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 6 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    4. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi / uraken uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    5. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    6. 3 shuto uke / kizami mae geri / gyaku nukite (stepping forward / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    7. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    8. 3 mae ren geri
    9. 3 mawashi ren geri
    10. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    11. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    12. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    13. switch to zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, oi tsuki position
    14. 2 mae geri / oi tsuki
    15. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, oi tsuki position
    16. 2 mae geri / oi tsuki

    Kata (形)

    Heian Godan (平安五段)

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki
    2. chudan oi tsuki
    3. chudan mae geri
    4. chudan yoko geri kekomi
  • Brown belt For Third Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai, speed, breathing, zanshin (continuation), and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 3 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi / uraken uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    4. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    5. 3 uchi ude uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping forward)
    6. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    7. 3 shuto uke / kizami mae geri / gyaku nukite (stepping backwards / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    8. 3 chudan kizami mae geri / jodan mae geri
    9. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    10. 3 chudan kizami mawashi geri / jodan mawashi geri
    11. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    12. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    13. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    14. switch to zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, oi tsuki position
    15. 3 mae geri / oi tsuki
    16. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    17. 3 mae geri / mawashi geri / gyaku-tsuki
    18. 3 mae-geri / yoko-kekomi-geri to side (stationary, right side)
    19. 3 mae-geri / yoko-kekomi-geri to side (stationary, left side)

    Kata (形)

    1. Tekki Shodan (鉄騎初段)
    2. One of the Heian kata by the examiners choice

    Kumite (組み手)

    Kihon Ippon Kumite (基本一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki (right side)
    2. chudan oi tsuki (right side)
    3. chudan mae geri (right side)
    4. chudan yoko geri kekomi (right side)
    5. jodan oi tsuki (left side)
    6. chudan oi tsuki (left side)
    7. chudan mae geri (left side)
    8. chudan yoko geri kekomi (left side)
  • Brown belt For Second Kyu

    Consideration: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai, speed, breathing, zanshin (continuation), feeling settled down, and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 3 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi / uraken uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    4. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    5. 3 uchi ude uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping forward)
    6. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    7. 3 shuto uke / kizami mae geri / gyaku nukite (stepping backwards / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    8. 3 chudan kizami mae geri / jodan mae geri
    9. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    10. 3 chudan kizami mawashi geri / jodan mawashi geri
    11. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    12. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    13. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    14. switch to zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    15. 3 mae geri / yoko kekomi geri / gyaku tsuki
    16. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    17. 3 yoko kekomi geri / mawashi geri / gyaku tsuki
    18. 3 mae-geri / yoko-kekomi-geri to side (stationary, right side)
    19. 3 mae-geri / yoko-kekomi-geri to side (stationary, left side)

    Kata (形)

    1. One of the following:
      • Bassai Dai (披塞大)
      • Enpi (燕飛)
      • Jion (慈恩)
      • Kanku Dai (観空大)
    2. One of the the five Heian kata or Tekki Shodan

    Kumite (組み手)

    Jiyu Ippon Kumite (自由一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki
    2. chudan oi tsuki
    3. chudan mae geri
    4. chudan yoko geri kekomi
  • Brown belt For First Kyu

    Considerations: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai, speed, breathing, zanshin (coninuation), feeling settled down, full body action, and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    1. 3 sanbon tsuki (stepping forward)
    2. 3 age uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    3. 3 soto ude uke / empi uchi / uraken uchi (stepping forward / switch to kiba dachi)
    4. 3 gedan barai / gyaku tsuki (stepping backwards)
    5. 3 uchi ude uke / gyaku tsuki (stepping forward)
    6. switch to kokutsu dachi, shuto uke
    7. 3 shuto uke / kizami mae geri / gyaku nukite (stepping backwards / switch to zenkutsu dachi)
    8. 3 chudan kizami mae geri / jodan mae geri
    9. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    10. 3 chudan kizami mawashi geri / jodan mawashi geri
    11. switch to kiba dachi, facing the examiners
    12. 3 yoko keage geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    13. 3 yoko kekomi geri each side (stepping in kiba dachi)
    14. switch to zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    15. 3 yoko kekomi geri / mawashi geri / gyaku tsuki
    16. turn into zenkutsu dachi, gedan barai, kamae
    17. 3 mawashi geri / yoko kekomi geri / gyaku tsuki
    18. 3 mae geri / yoko keage geri to side / yoko kekomi geri to side (stationary, right side)
    19. 3 mae geri / yoko keage geri to side / yoko kekomi geri to side (stationary, left side)

    Kata (形)

    1. One of the following:
      • Bassai Dai (披塞大)
      • Enpi (燕飛)
      • Jion (慈恩)
      • Kanku Dai (観空大)
    2. One of the the five Heian kata or Tekki Shodan

    Kumite (組み手)

    Jiyu Ippon Kumite (自由一本組み手)

    1. jodan oi tsuki
    2. chudan oi tsuki
    3. chudan mae geri
    4. chudan yoko geri kekomi
    5. chudan mawashi geri
  • Black belt For Shodan

    Considerations: Eye direction, concentration, stance, posture, timing, distance, accelaration, kiai, speed, breathing, zanshin (continuation), feeling settled down, full body action, minimize unnecessary movement, and external actions.

    Kihon (基本)

    Kata (形)

    Kumite (組み手)

  • Black belt For Nidan

    Kihon (基本)

    Kata (形)

    Kumite (組み手)

  • Black belt For Sandan

    Kihon (基本)

    Kata (形)

    Kumite (組み手)